Understanding Technology Readiness Level and Its Importance in Innovation


Hani Mehr

2/17/20244 min read

man using laptop in front of brown chair
man using laptop in front of brown chair

In today's rapidly evolving world, technology plays a crucial role in driving innovation and progress. As new ideas and concepts emerge, it becomes essential to assess the maturity and potential of these technologies. This is where the concept of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) comes into play. TRL is a systematic approach to evaluate the readiness of a technology for deployment and commercialization. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of TRL and understand its significance in the innovation landscape.

What is Technology Readiness Level?

Technology Readiness Level, commonly referred to as TRL, is a scale used to assess the maturity of a technology. It provides a framework to understand the various stages of development and helps in determining the potential for successful implementation. TRL was initially developed by NASA in the 1970s to evaluate the readiness of technologies for space missions. Since then, it has been widely adopted across industries and sectors.

The TRL scale consists of nine levels, each representing a specific stage of technology development. These levels range from basic research (TRL 1) to full-scale deployment and commercialization (TRL 9). Let's take a closer look at each level:

TRL 1 - Basic principles observed and reported

At this stage, the technology is in its infancy, and the basic principles underlying its functionality have been identified and documented. However, no experimental proof or validation has been conducted yet.

TRL 2 - Technology concept and application formulated

In this stage, the technology concept is defined, and its potential applications are identified. Initial experiments or simulations may be conducted to validate the concept further.

TRL 3 - Analytical and experimental critical function and/or characteristic proof of concept

At TRL 3, the technology undergoes a proof-of-concept phase, where critical functions and characteristics are tested and validated through analytical and experimental methods. This stage helps in assessing the feasibility and potential risks associated with the technology.

TRL 4 - Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory environment

At this level, the technology is further developed and tested in a laboratory environment. Components and subsystems are integrated to create a functional prototype, known as a breadboard. This stage helps in evaluating the performance and reliability of the technology.

TRL 5 - Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant environment

TRL 5 involves testing the technology in a relevant environment that closely resembles the intended operating conditions. This stage aims to validate the technology's functionality and performance in real-world scenarios.

TRL 6 - System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment

At TRL 6, a system or subsystem model is developed and tested in a relevant environment. This stage focuses on demonstrating the technology's capability to perform its intended functions under realistic conditions.

TRL 7 - System prototype demonstration in an operational environment

In this stage, a full-scale system prototype is tested and demonstrated in an operational environment. The technology is evaluated for its performance, reliability, and compatibility with other systems.

TRL 8 - Actual system completed and qualified through test and demonstration

At TRL 8, the technology is considered fully developed, and the final system is completed and qualified through extensive testing and demonstration. This stage helps in identifying any remaining issues or limitations before moving towards deployment.

TRL 9 - Actual system proven through successful mission operations

TRL 9 represents the highest level of technology readiness, where the technology has been successfully deployed and proven through mission operations. It signifies that the technology is mature, reliable, and ready for widespread commercialization.

The Importance of Technology Readiness Level

Technology Readiness Level is an essential tool for decision-making in the innovation and development process. It provides valuable insights into the maturity and potential of a technology, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding its further development, investment, and deployment. Here are some key reasons why TRL is important:

1. Risk Assessment

TRL helps in assessing the risks associated with a technology at different stages of development. By evaluating the technical feasibility, performance, and reliability, stakeholders can identify potential challenges and mitigate risks before investing significant resources.

2. Resource Allocation

TRL assists in allocating resources effectively throughout the development process. It helps in determining the appropriate funding, expertise, and infrastructure required to advance the technology from one level to another. This ensures that resources are utilized optimally and aligned with the technology's readiness level.

3. Collaboration and Partnerships

TRL provides a common language and framework for collaboration and partnerships among different stakeholders. It enables effective communication and understanding of the technology's current state, facilitating collaborations between researchers, industry, and investors.

4. Commercialization and Market Entry

TRL plays a crucial role in the commercialization of technologies. It helps in identifying the right time to enter the market and ensures that the technology is mature enough to meet the market's requirements. This increases the chances of successful adoption and reduces the risks of market failure.

5. Policy and Regulation

TRL also influences policy and regulation decisions. Governments and regulatory bodies often consider the technology's readiness level when formulating policies, standards, and regulations. This ensures that the technology is safe, reliable, and compliant with the necessary guidelines.


Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is a valuable tool for assessing the maturity and potential of technologies. It provides a systematic approach to evaluate the readiness of a technology for deployment and commercialization. By understanding the various stages of development and their significance, stakeholders can make informed decisions regarding resource allocation, risk assessment, collaboration, and market entry. TRL plays a crucial role in driving innovation and ensuring the successful adoption of technologies in today's rapidly evolving world.